What is the Maximum Battery Capacity Of Each Pre-Hospital Warmer at 4°C input (liters)?

 buddy lite™Thermal Angel®Quantum™Warrior liteWarrior lite (Extra Power battery)Warrior & Warrior EXTREME
Max Battery Capacity at 4°C input (liters) [1]111.333.5
CommentsSee note [2]<1 liter per independent study. See note [3]Per user manualPer user manual3.5 liters (3.3 liters at 200 ml/min) [4]
Notes:

[1] The term “Battery Capacity” means “the volume of fluids – in liters — that can be warmed with a single, fully charged battery”. Actual output is subject to battery condition, ambient temperature (typically 20°C ambient is assumed) and flow rates.

[2] “At an input temperature of 20°C and flow of 50 mL/min, the Buddy Lite warmed over 3 L to above 35°C, an energy transfer of more than 44 watt hour (Wh). As the flow increased to 100 mL/min, the Buddy Lite warmed intermittently for 30 min before stabilising at a peak temperature of 33°C (this behavior is demonstrated in figure 2B), heating the first 3 L by only 5°C–8°C, with a maximal temperature exceeding 35°C, achieved after more than 30 min, and lasting for a prolonged period. This translated into low initial energy transfer for the initial 3 L, but equated to heat transfer of greater than 38 Wh when more than 5 L were infused. As flow rate increased to 200 mL/min, the Buddy Lite performance pattern worsened: it consisted of short heating attempts, without stabilising at an appropriate output temperature, providing minimal energy transfer (1.5 Wh). This behaviour persisted at an input temperature of 10°C, regardless of the flow rate. The Buddy Lite was unable to sustain stable, appropriate output temperature and at flow rates of 50, 100 and 200 mL/min it heated fluid by only 1°C–2°C, with minimal heat transfer (6.7, 2.8 and 2.0 Wh, respectively)” (Lehavi A, Yitzhak A, Jarassy R, et al. Emergency Med Journal, doi:10.1136/ emermed-2017-207112).

[3] “At an input temperature of 20°C and flow rates of 50 mL/min and 100 mL/min, the Thermal Angel warmed just under one litre to approximately 36°C. As flow rate increased to 200 mL/min, nearly 1.5 litres reached a substantially lower temperature of 31°C. At an input temperature of 10°C and a flow rate of 50 mL/min, the Thermal Angel warmed under 700 mL to 34°C, with an increase in total heated volume and a further, substantial decrease in output temperature as the flow increased to 100 and 200 mL/min (800 mL and 1.5 litres, at 29.4°C and 20.9°C, respectively).” (Lehavi A, Yitzhak A, Jarassy R, et al. Emergency Med Journal, doi:10.1136/ emermed-2017-207112).

[4] “At an input temperature of 20°C and a flow rate of 50 mL/min, the Warrior warmed over 3.5 L to an average temperature of 37.8°C. Flow rates of 100 and 200 mL/min increased total heated volume with small effect on the output temperature (4.3 and 4.8 L at 37.1°C and 36.1°C, respectively). This behaviour persists at an input temperature of 10°C—warming 2.6, 2.9 and 3.3 L to 36.9°C , 35.9°C and 34.4°C at flow rates of 50, 100 and 200 mL/min, respectively.” (Lehavi A, Yitzhak A, Jarassy R, et al. Emergency Med Journal, doi:10.1136/ emermed-2017-207112).
DISCLAIMERS: The table above compares selected product attributes of several portable blood/IV warmers, including buddy lite™ (a registered trademark of Belmont® Medical Technologies), Thermal Angel® (manufactured by Estill Medical Technologies Inc.) and Quantum™ (a registered trademark of Life Warmer®), with those of the Warrior configurations (manufactured by Quality In Flow, or QinFlow). Quality in Flow is not affiliated with any of the other manufacturers above. The benchmarking is based on publicly available information and/or the respective device’s Instructions for Use (IFU) / User Manual, where applicable. The IFU / User Manual used for this study many not be the latest version. Further, the IFUs / User Manuals used for this study may be changed by the manufacturers as the products evolve; QinFlow may not know about such updates and in any event does not undertake to update the information in the table upon such changes. Unless stated differently, the benchmark information was commissioned by QinFlow alone and not all data points were independently verified. The manufacturers above were not part of this benchmark study. Use of the Warrior is subject to QinFlow’s terms of use. This benchmark study does not intend to cover all the differences between the devices. QinFlow does not guarantee that any of the devices, including its own, will achieve the results or perform as mentioned in the benchmark study. QinFlow only warrants the information published in its IFUs (performance data points above are in accordance with the CE marks of each Warrior configuration; for FDA-cleared IFU, where applicable, contact QinFlow). Please contact the respective manufacturers for clarifications.

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