What is the Maximum Delivery Rate of Each Pre-Hospital Warmer at 20°C input (ml/min)?

buddy lite™Thermal Angel®Quantum™Warrior liteWarrior lite (Extra Power battery)Warrior & Warrior EXTREME
Max Delivery Rate at 20°C input (ml/min) [1]80200200250270290
CommentsPer user manual. See note [2]<200 ml/min per independent study. See note [3]Per user manual

[1] The term “Max Delivery Rate” means “the maximum flow rate in which target temperature – typically 38°C — will be reached”. Obviously, this measure relates to battery capacity as well; the assumption therefore is that a fully charged battery is used.

[2] “At an input temperature of 20°C and flow of 50 mL/min, the Buddy Lite warmed over 3 L to above 35°C, an energy transfer of more than 44 watt hour (Wh). As the flow increased to 100 mL/min, the Buddy Lite warmed intermittently for 30 min before stabilising at a peak temperature of 33°C (this behavior is demonstrated in figure 2B), heating the first 3 L by only 5°C–8°C, with a maximal temperature exceeding 35°C, achieved after more than 30 min, and lasting for a prolonged period. This translated into low initial energy transfer for the initial 3 L, but equated to heat transfer of greater than 38 Wh when more than 5 L were infused. As flow rate increased to 200 mL/min, the Buddy Lite performance pattern worsened: it consisted of short heating attempts, without stabilising at an appropriate output temperature, providing minimal energy transfer (1.5 Wh). This behavior persisted at an input temperature of 10°C, regardless of the flow rate. The Buddy Lite was unable to sustain stable, appropriate output temperature and at flow rates of 50, 100 and 200 mL/min it heated fluid by only 1°C–2°C, with minimal heat transfer (6.7, 2.8 and 2.0 Wh, respectively)” (Lehavi A, Yitzhak A, Jarassy R, et al. Emergency Med Journal, doi:10.1136/ emermed-2017-207112).

[3] “At an input temperature of 20°C and flow rates of 50 mL/min and 100 mL/min, the Thermal Angel warmed just under one liter to approximately 36°C. As flow rate increased to 200 mL/min, nearly 1.5 liters reached a substantially lower temperature of 31°C. At an input temperature of 10°C and a flow rate of 50 mL/min, the Thermal Angel warmed under 700 mL to 34°C, with an increase in total heated volume and a further, substantial decrease in output temperature as the flow increased to 100 and 200 mL/min (800 mL and 1.5 liters, at 29.4°C and 20.9°C, respectively).” (Lehavi A, Yitzhak A, Jarassy R, et al. Emergency Med Journal, doi:10.1136/ emermed-2017-207112).
DISCLAIMERS: The table above compares selected product attributes of several portable blood/IV warmers, including buddy lite™ (a registered trademark of Belmont® Medical Technologies), Thermal Angel® (manufactured by Estill Medical Technologies Inc.) and Quantum™ (a registered trademark of Life Warmer®), with those of the Warrior configurations (manufactured by Quality In Flow, or QinFlow). Quality in Flow is not affiliated with any of the other manufacturers above. The benchmarking is based on publicly available information and/or the respective device’s Instructions for Use (IFU) / User Manual, where applicable. The IFU / User Manual used for this study many not be the latest version. Further, the IFUs / User Manuals used for this study may be changed by the manufacturers as the products evolve; QinFlow may not know about such updates and in any event does not undertake to update the information in the table upon such changes. Unless stated differently, the benchmark information was commissioned by QinFlow alone and not all data points were independently verified. The manufacturers above were not part of this benchmark study. Use of the Warrior is subject to QinFlow’s terms of use. This benchmark study does not intend to cover all the differences between the devices. QinFlow does not guarantee that any of the devices, including its own, will achieve the results or perform as mentioned in the benchmark study. QinFlow only warrants the information published in its IFUs (performance data points above are in accordance with the CE marks of each Warrior configuration; for FDA-cleared IFU, where applicable, contact QinFlow). Please contact the respective manufacturers for clarifications.

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